Avocado Leaves Can Cure Kidney Stone
In addition to diabetes, kidney stone is one of the diseases that interfere with public health in Indonesia. According to Asnaldi (2008), patients with kidney stone disease were estimated to be 13 % in adult men and 7 % in adult women in Indonesia. The worst excess of kidney stones is a permanent kidney damage or uremia.
Diuretic drug administration (the drug to quicken the formation of urine) can shed kidney stones smaller than 5 millimeters. Meanwhile kidney stones of more than 5 millimeters may be treated with Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy (ESWL), Percutaneous Nephrolithotripsy (PCNL) and Ureteroscopy. ESWL technique is to use waves that can crush the kidneys from outside the patient's body. This technique is relatively safe, without injuring the patient, anesthesia and hospitalization. PCNL treatment is by making a hole to remove the kidney stones. Both ESWL and PCNL are affordable for everybody because they are quite expensive and not many hospitals have the treatment facilities.
The extract of avocado leaves or Persea americana offers an alternative prevention from the formation of crystal that would become a kidney stone. Empirically, people have been using avocado leaves as drugs for lowering high blood pressure, diabetes and kidney stones. Unfortunately the studies of avocado leaves are still very limited, so there is not much scientific information about its pharmacological activity. For this reason, researchers from the Department of Clinic, Reproduction and Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Dr. Ietje Wientarsih, Rini Madyastuti P, Bayu Prasetyo and Lina Noviyanti Febram were interested to investigate the ability of avocado leaves to inhibit the formation of kidney crystal.
"This study was aimed to provide information on the diuretic ability of ethanol extract from avocado leaves and its inhibiting force against the formation of kidney crystals particularly calcium oxalate and the development of avocado leaves into standardized herbal or phytopharmaca," said Dr. Wientarsih. Calcium oxalate is the type of stone mostly encountered, i.e. 75-80 % of all kidney stones.
This research was conducted for two years. In the first year, the ethanol extract was tested to inhibit the kidney crystals induced by certain chemicals. This study used 20 white male mice of Sprague Dawley. They were divided into three groups: normal, furosemide and treatment. Normal group (K1) did not receive any treatment. In the positive group (K2), mice were induced and given furosemide. In the treatment groups (K3 and K4), the induced mice were orally given ethanol extracts of avocado leaves in different doses. The measurements of urine volume were done at the 5th and 24th hour. "The result was that the group K3 showed diuretic activity and this inhibited the formation of kidney crystal better than the furosemide group. This means that with the same dosage, the avocado leaf extract could inhibit crystal formation better than furosemide," said Dr. Wientarsih.
In the second year, the ethanol extract of avocado leaves was filtered using the solvents ethyl acetate and n-hexane. Then, the fraction of ethyl acetate and n-hexane from the ethanol extract of avocado leaves was tested on mice. The result was that this fraction indicated a diuretic activity and the most optimum inhibition against kidney crystals than furosemide. "The avocado leaf extract contains flavonoids and potassium that can shed the kidney crystals," said Dr. Wientarsih
Avocado leaf extract is made into three formulas of pharmaceutical tablets by wet granulation method and the three elixir formulas (sweet syrup). Three formulas of tablets were compared in terms of crushing time based on the concentrations of the variable polivinilpirolidon (PVP) K30 i.e. 2.5 gram, 5 gram and 7.5 gram. The formula of 2.5 grams PVP K30 has the crushing time that meets the requirements of Pharmacopoeia Indonesia, i.e. 14.21 minutes. Meanwhile, the three elixir formulas already tested have the alcohol concentration of 5%, 7.5 % and 10% each. The formula with 7.5 % of alcohol indicates a stable specific gravity and the best viscosity. (mtd)
Nomor HP Dr.Itje Wientarsih 08129603292
Published Date : 03-Sep-2010
Resource Person : Dr.Itje Wientarsih
Keyword : ipb